AIDS/HIV has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the disease was a virtual death sentence until various drugs were used to slow its effects. As a result, the total number of people who are living with this condition has risen dramatically. Recent evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the total number of people who are living with the disease. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), they found that the amount of adults (worldwide) who are living with the HIV / ADIS currently stands at 33 million. While, the number of people receiving anti-viral therapy is sitting at 5.24 million. This is significant, because it is showing how various efforts to prevent the spread of the disease have proven to be successful. As, the anti-virus drugs are helping to provide patients with: more options. (HIV / AIDS 2010)
However, in Africa the disease is still continuing to have some of the highest mortality rates around the globe. A good example of how severe the problem has become, can be seen by looking at some of the different countries on the content that have the highest numbers of deaths in the world. A few of the most notable include: South Africa, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Mozambique, Cameron, Malawi and Zambia. This is despite that fact that there have been billions of dollars spent in education and trying to prevent the spread of the disease. (HIV / AIDS 2010) As a result, we are seeking to understand how it is spread. This will be accomplished by examining how: the sex industry, social instability and economic factors are contributing to the consistently high number of cases that are being reported. Once this occurs, it will support or refute the hypothesis that has been presented.
The aims of this research project are: to gain a greater understanding of why the AIDS/HIV virus has been spreading throughout Africa. As, they will provide specific areas that we can focus on to: support or disprove the hypothesis that has been presented. To achieve this objective we will focus on the following aims.
To understand how cultural perceptions of women have fueled the spread of the disease.
To see how social and economic status are: related to the number of cases that are reported.
To comprehend how migrant workers and the sex industry are contributing to the problem.
The significance of this project is to understand what factors are helping to contribute to the spreading of the virus. This will help us to comprehend why the number of cases is continuing to remain so high.
The design of the research project will be based on upon the cross sectional method. This is when you are taking the data that has been collected and you are then comparing it with: other results to identify the underlying trend. Once this occurs, it will allow us to evaluate data from different groups to provide the most accurate results. (Cross Sectional Study 2011)
Public Health Problem
Until we are able to have a better understanding of these causes, the virus and its lasting effects will continue to remain an ongoing public health problem.
The knowledge gap about how to address the issue of AIDS/HIV is still continuing to be debated. In this project we are seeking to provide ways of understanding the causes of issue and what steps can be taken to deal with these challenges.
The theory that we are proposing is that various cultural, social and economic factors have been adversely impacting women. This is having a direct effect on the number of HIV / AIDS cases that are being reported throughout Africa.
As a result, our hypothesis will prove or refute how: the sex industry, social instability and economic mobility will have an impact upon women. Where, these are the most vulnerable in society and are often carriers of the disease.
To help focus the research we will concentrate on the follow research question.
Has violence and social views against women lead to the high number of HIV / AIDS cases in Africa?
Methodological Approach and Methods
The methodology that we will be using is what is known as mixed methods. This is when you are taking elements of qualitative and quantitative analysis to have a more in depth understanding of the subject. Qualitative analysis is when you are looking at specific responses that you received from some kind of sample that was taken (based off a series of questions that were created). The idea with using this kind of approach is to be able to create an independent study that will confirm or refute the findings from previous research on the subject. This is based off of interviews and observations that were taken by researchers. Quantitative analysis is when you are assigning numerical values on the information that was received. (Quantitative and Qualitative 2011) At which point, you will compare the different figures with one another to: corroborate and identify the underlying trends. Once this occurs, you can be able to have a more complete understanding of the subject. This will help to support or disprove the hypothesis and theory that were presented earlier. (Mixed Methods 2011)
To identify and recruit participants for our sample we will first look at the various individuals who are involved in the fight against HIV / AIDS. This will be accomplished by having some of our respondents come from various nonprofit organizations (that are focused on this issue), government officials and public health workers. We will then concentrate on finding both men and women who are from Africa. This will be completed by: identifying what communities these individuals are living in. At which point, we will go to various public health clinics and seek out patients who are from Africa.
The respondents of the survey will be based upon the percentages of men to women and age groups in Africa. This will provide us with an accurate comparison by mirroring the population demographics of the content on a small scale.
The size of the sample will be 500 respondents.
The sample technique that we will be using is: the probability proportional to size methodology. This is when you are making the population size similar (on a percentage basis) to the demographics of the subject that you are studying. The idea is to be able to mirror the sample on smaller scale. At which point, you can be able to make accurate inferences about what are: the trends and underlying causes of the problem. (Probability Proportional to Size Sampling 2011)
The materials that we will be using as a part of the survey will be based on a questionnaire that is provided to respondents. This will be delivered in electronically (via email) or in written form. The preferred method will be: to send out the survey to as many of the respondents as possible electronically. However, at many community health clinics, the print version would be distributed. This is because many African immigrants / migrant workers will have less access to the internet and other forms of high technology. When you are offering them a print copy, this is looking at the issue from the point-of-view of those who have been impacted by these events. This will add to the accuracy of the sample. (Internet Usage Statistics for Africa 2011)
The procedure that we will use to conduct the survey will involve a number of different steps which are listed below.
Step one: Create the survey and recruitment letter.
Step two: Recruit the sample population.
Step three: Conduct the survey on the sample population.
Step four: Analyze the results and identify trends. This will support or refute the hypothesis and theory that has been presented.
Step five: Conduct follow up surveys with the respondent one more time over the course of six months. This will add to the validity of previous responses and help us to identify new trends that could be emerging with this issue.
The following is sample questionnaire that will be provide to respondents
What do think are the tends in HIV / AIDS research?
How do think the sex industry is contributing to the problem?
How do think women are treated in comparison with men?
Do you believe that there is difference in the way patients are cared for based on gender?
Do you think the antivirus drugs should be provided more?
Do you believe that women with HIV / AIDS need to be given more resources?
To Analyze the findings with one another we will use both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics is when you are describing what the data is showing. This is accomplished by looking at a number of different statistics to discuss the data and its underlying meaning. For example, if you want…