California Has Always Been a

SAMPLE EXCERPT:" This holds true regardless of which race is being discriminated against or which race is being given preference.

The initial reaction to the Bakke decision was a surprising increase in affirmative action decisions and by the 1990s the diversity rationale for such action was firmly entrenched into the minds of the public.

At UCLA, for example, being from the "right" racial group could secure admission with a GPA of 3.4 and an SAT score in the 50th percentile, while applicants from the "wrong" racial group and a GPA of 3.96 and an SAT score in the 81st percentile were rejected (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 (, at UC-San Diego, 300 points were added to the admissions scores of targeted groups (equivalent to 300 points of the combined Verbal-Math SAT score). At each of the UC campuses, less-qualified Blacks and Mexican-Americans were routinely admitted over significantly better-qualified Asians and Whites. The effect on admissions was anything but subtle (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 ("


The problems escalated until the development and passage of proposition 209 in 1996 in which the dismantling of affirmative action was mandated. "The morning after Proposition 209 passed, UC President Richard Atkinson directed the chancellors of the nine UC campuses to take the necessary steps to comply with the new law (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 ( ordinary circumstances, such an event would be hardly worth noting. A public servant is expected to request the employees under his direction to follow the law (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 ("

In the spring of 1997 there were many eyes turned to the graduate admissions to see what type of impact it would have. "Most Proposition 209 supporters expected a significant effect on the most competitive programs -- like law and medicine -- since the preferences being granted in those programs had been very sizable (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 ("

When the data began to roll in it was clear that Proposition 209 did have an immediate impact on the racial balance of the most competitive programs (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 ("When, for example, UC-Berkeley's highly-acclaimed Boalt Hall School of Law announced the racial composition of the students it had accepted into its entering class, the figures were striking: the number of Black students accepted into the program had fallen from 75 to 14-an 81% decline (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 ("

The 14 black students refused to enroll because they each had offers from much more prestige's schools such as Harvard and Yale that still followed affirmative action guidelines (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 (

The overall data also suggested that some students who did not go to law school changed career plans on their own and it had nothing to do with the changing of affirmative action.

And the news with regard to other "underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities" was mixed (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 ( Indians actually increased their numbers among accepted students slightly. Hispanics and Filipinos, however, fared somewhat worse than Blacks, bringing the overall decline in the number of accepted "underrepresented minorities" to twenty-seven percent. The slack was taken up by an increase of Asian students, whose numbers went up six percent. White admissions remained about the same (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 ( that the UC system was becoming "lily white" as a result of Proposition 209 were false (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 ("

Further results indicated that with the exception of medicine and law, the impact of proposition 209 was very modest. Medicine and law majors did show a significant change however.

UC Davis Medical School 2000

Of the applicants, about 9% were black or mexican-American. You would expect about 9% of the accepted students to be black or mexican-American. UC Davis accepted 221 students, so you would expect 221 x 0.09 = 20 black or mexican-American students to be accepted.

In reality, UC Davis discriminates on the basis of race. They admitted 41 black and mexican-American applicants, about twice as many as they would have in a fair system.

We estimate 21 better qualified asian and white students were denied admission to UC Davis School of Medicine in 2000 because of their race.

Race Applied % Accepted % GPA Ave. MCAT Asian/White 3702 91% 180 82% 3.67-10.9 Black/Hispanic 382 9% 41-18% 3.38

UC Irvine Medical School 2000

Ethnic Profile Report

Race Applied % Accepted % GPA Ave. MCAT Asian/White 3461 91% 194 85% 3.71-10.91 Black/Hispanic 335 9% 24-15% 3.45 9.52 MCAT and GPA Scatterplot

The press focused on the impact of Proposition 209 as well, reporting that the numbers of minority admissions and enrollment did decrease once proposition 209 went into affect. Most of the attention was focused on UC Berkley with the other less mentioned schools were studied to a lesser degree (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 (

The press directed far less attention to other campuses like UC-Riverside and UC-Santa Cruz, both of which posted impressive gains in minority admissions as a result of cascading. At Riverside, for example (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 (,Black and Latino student admissions shot up by forty-two percent and thirty-one percent respectively. Santa Cruz's increases were less dazzling, but nevertheless notable. And those campuses that could only report mixed results received almost no attention at all. Evidently, the media regarded mixed as boring and unlikely to sell newspapers, much less hold the attention of television viewers (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 ( example, at UC-San Diego-UC's third most selective campus-Black enrollment was down nineteen percent, but the enrollment of some other "underrepresented" groups like Filipinos and Latinos was actually up by ten percent and twenty-three percent (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 ("

When looking at the impact of proposition 209 on state schools the GPA statuses were also studied. Before proposition 209 at UC San Diego there was one black student on the honor roll out of a class of more than 3,000, which was a sharp contrast to the 20% of white students on the same campus that made the honor roll (The UC Prior to Proposition 209 (