Organizations function within a changing environment. Political, Economic, Social and Technical - PEST factors have an effect on an organization. Change is unavoidable and the difficulty managers face how to control change and use its outcome for the advantage of the organization. Change may involve any of the following external drivers: Environmental changes could be changes regarding what customers are purchasing, how they use their money, changes brought about in legislation, changes in attitudes of the society, their values, behavior, changes in the functioning patterns of the competitors, economic changes, etc.
Changes in technology intend new working styles, jobs, new uses of technology, and new laws pertaining to technology. The internal drivers for change are: Changes in management and working patterns would be use of teams/groups, changes brought about in the patterns of management or working styles of management. Changes in the products or services an organization produces which could result from competitor's actions or customer's requirements and due to new technology. Changes in the size or structure of an organization for instance would be new departments or divisions, improved allocation and de-layering. From the above points it is clear that changes could result from external and internal factors. Other internal force for change can come from: Owners and Shareholders, the Board of directors, the staff of the organization and cultural changes in the organization. (Change: floti.bell.ac.uk/)
The execution plan is a high level plan that gives management the basic road map positioning what is required to be done in order to attain the successful change from the old pattern of doing business in the new style. It offers all matters that need to be thought about before and during the change, developmental stages, requirements for training and change management, and measuring performance and response. After execution, a thorough project management plan would be the initial step.
Matters relating to funding for improvement investments become essential at this stage and, preferably, have been expected. A branch of the execution plan must offer coaching at the operational administrative, and maintenance levels of the new process, before the staff take up their new tasks. It should also give training when the staff takes up their jobs. The staff should be prepared just on time as too early will lead to bewilderment and concern about the new systems and processes, and may hinder with customer delivery. On the other hand too late would mean that they are not ready for their new tasks. (Issues to Consider When Implementing the Approved Changes)
usual component of the change process is resistance and it cannot be prevented. The secrets to organizing it lie in understanding what to anticipate, recognizing the different kinds of resistance and executing plans to deal with them. but, it helps to realize why people oppose in the first place. The basis for people to oppose change is: Not concerned in scheduling the change; Personal disturbance; Not knowing the advantages; differing with the change; scared of the unfamiliar. Though people oppose change in many ways, Poling makes out three particular types of resistance as the major cause in upsetting change plans: First is Dependency.
Employees who show signs of inactive dependency wait for people to tell them as to what is to be done, how it is to be done, and the time to do it. They decline to take any responsibility and demand management to work out all their problems. Employees who take on active dependency reject to take responsibility and blame it onto others. Either form of dependency can destroy a change initiative in a hurry. (Managing resistance to change)
Next is Counter-dependency. Counter-dependent employees deny following rules and procedures even while they make sense for all concerned. Counter-dependent employees oppose on the persistent and undeveloped principle that, "Nobody is going to tell me what to do!" Finally, when people get frightened, they oppose. Poling says the job is to help them not to be wounded by giving them ample information about what will ensue and when and how it will distress them.
Poling says to handle dependent and counter-dependent behavior, just tackle the employee, clarify that those kinds of behaviors are not agreeable in your organization and try to get them to grow up. The following methods can be used to control resistance to change: Learn to respect resistance; do not personalize the resistance; recognize the available resources; control according to the change phase; know your personal skills; Keep moving forward. Finally, managing resistance often comes down to what Daniels calls the three C's: Carry people who are resistant to change. Carry people to cope with the change. 'Can' dismiss those who rebuff, while making the change. (Managing resistance to change)
Six strategies for managing resistance to change are: Compensate individuals for the extra attempts necessary during the process of change. Help individuals predict change by giving clear data, a gradual approach and a clear focus of the final result. Next is providing individual's freedom to declare old complaints and new doubts. Reduce resistance by giving opportunity for contribution and giving options in the planning for change at all stages. Give people a grace time to fine-tune to the idea of change and time to conceal the old ways. Educate individuals systematically in the skills they need to execute their new tasks well and to protect their sense of proficiency. (Billings: Managing Change)
One of the slightest mentioned results of change is regarding how it influences the manager who leads that change, and his or her aptitude to assume the leadership role. Certain types of change, like reorganization, or reducing the size of the organization can place substantial tension on the leaders of an organization.
As the managers have commitment to their staff, they not only have to be concerned with change as employees but also must deal with some of the worries of their personnel. The tension levels are enormously high in case of or reducing the size of the organization as the manager is charged with passing on very displeasing information. Tension is part of the job, but during change, it is important that you know that it may make you to act in ways that are less efficient than usual. (the effects of change on the Manager)
One of the most frequent queries we hear is about the role of leadership in the change process. The simple solution is that leadership must do everything they can both clearly and behind the scenes, to provide encouragement to the change process. The ideas given below are rather common in nature, but will help in playing the role most efficiently. In the initial stages of the change process, the labors, which are to be involved, are: Enrolling the co-operation of others in senior leadership roles; Pooling the resources like money and people which are required to guarantee that success can be attained; Helping the project team work effectively in its start up activities and project design; Conveying to all employees in the company the motives for the need to change; Summarizing to all what they can suppose in terms of the future and in terms of the change process that would be used, and; Taking note carefully and reacting suitably to the response they get. The role of the leaders will change as the project moves forward into the design stage of the change program. (the role of leadership during change)
Their concentration now will be on: Offering continuing leadership and co-operation to the change team; Keeping their colleagues updated and current on their activities and its progress; Extending their knowledge of the new behaviors that will be essential in the changed organization and helping others do the same; Eliminating obstacles spotted by the change team that may obstruct the change efforts; Continuing to convey the change effort and why it is so essential to the company; Continuing to take note and react to response from all areas of the company; Keeping people notified about the progress being made and what is expected as the project moves forward; Appointing people at all stages of the organization in discussion about the future and what it denotes. The role of the leadership is to move ahead as well to make sure that completion is achieved in the most efficient way, when the design efforts are accomplished and the implementation begins.
Their hard work at this time will include: Staying vigorously involved in the process while reducing obstacles that are recognized; Identifying results that are attained by the many people concerned - both major achievements and those which are small in nature; Continuing to express the future image verbally and through activities, through message and by modeling the behaviors related with the desired future; Continuing to give the resources required; Continuing to strengthen why the change is required and what it will represent to the company, its different departments, employees and customers;…