What is the difference between a centralized and de-centralized family?
A centralized family would be one that would be under the control of one central authority or family member. A decentralized family on the other hand would be one in which the authority would be spread out among many members. The advantages and disadvantages of centralized vs. decentralized family structures can be found in the inherent behaviors and properties of the structures themselves. Decentralization allows families to take advantage of a division of labor by sharing decision-making across the family. It also empowers people and permits them to improve their performance by being able to act to improve poor or inefficient areas right away without approval from the top of the family. Another advantage of decentralization is allowing for many family members to actually use their first hand knowledge and experience to improve the family overall (Centralization vs. Decentralization, 2007).
Please name each of the four attachment styles. Please give an example of how a person in each style would communicate and develop relationships.
The four attachment styles are: secure attachment, ambivalent - insecure attachment, avoidant - insecure attachment, and disorganized insecure attachment. Those who are securely attached often have trusting, long-term relationships. These people often have high self-esteem, enjoy intimate relationships, seek out social support, and have the ability to share feelings with other people during communication. Those with ambivalent attachment styles often feel hesitant about becoming close to others and worry that other people do not feel the same way about them. This leads to the frequent ending of relationships, often because the association feels cold and distant. These people feel particularly distressed after the end of a relationship. These people often have trouble communicating with other people. Those with avoidant attachment often have issues with intimacy and close relationships. These people do not put in a lot of emotion into relationships and experience little suffering when one ends. These people also have trouble when communicating with other people because they don't let themselves get close. People with a disorganized-insecure attachment style often exhibit a lack of clear attachment conduct. Their dealings and behaviors towards other people are often a mix of actions, including avoidance or resistance. These people often find it hard to communicate with others and build close knit relationships (Cherry, 2010).
3) Two part question:
A) What are the five bases of power? Please give examples for each.
1. Positional Power -- is the official authority that people get from their position in within an organization or group. It is often backed by standard policy or law. This is one form of power over. An example of this type of power would be a manager who has power over their subordinates. 2. Reward Power -- is the power that depends upon the ability of who ever has the power to give respected material rewards, such as money, benefits, time off, desired gifts, promotions or responsibility. An example of this type of power would be the reward of a bonus if they team makes a sales goal. It is also a type of power over. Some people who hand out rewards do so out of a spirit of solidarity and deep humanity and are uncomfortable with this power. They prefer to develop partnerships that are based on power with. There is often a tension with this that can not be resolved in the development world, yet it is hardly ever discussed between the givers and receivers of rewards. 3. Personal Power -- is the power or capability of people to draw others in, to build strong interpersonal relationships, to influence and build faithfulness. This is often based on the charm and interpersonal skills of the one who holds the power. This is an example of power within, but it can be used as power over. Due to the fact that the world is becoming more democratic and is counting less on positional power and more on consensus, this form of power becomes very important and requires a deeper center on individual empowerment. An example of this type of power can be seen in the type of person that has so much charm and charisma that people naturally are pulled to them. The often have power over their immediate group of cohorts. 4. Expert Power -- the power people get from their skills, knowledge and experience and the demand for those skills and expertise. This type of power is typically very specific and often restricted to the particular area in which a person is trained and competent. Being highly informed and up-to-date with practical information is part of this power. This is thought to be power within but it can also be used as power over either positively or negatively, particularly in situations where expert skills and knowledge are thought to be greatly needed. An example of this type of power would be found in a subject matter expert who really knows their area and always has people coming to them for help. 5. Coercive Power -- is the function of negative, fear-based influence upon others. An example of this type of power would be a bully. These types of people use this type of behavior to get other people to do things their way. It is often based on any of the above powers or even physical strength to ensure the compliance of those under power. Coercive power is often the clearest cut but is often the least successful as it often leads to resentment and resistance. A hidden form of coercive power is the power of victims to use guilt to influence situations in their favor (Five Bases of Power, n.d.).
B) What are the five self-presentation strategies? Please give an example of how each would work.
The five self-presentational strategies include: ingratiation, self-promotion, exemplification, intimidation, and supplication. Each of these strategies differs in the way an actor, or self-presenter, wishes a target to attribute the self-presenter's actions and behaviors. With respect to assertive self-presentational tactics, ingratiation is comprised of actions that are designed to make one appear likeable and agreeable. There are a couple of ways in which a person could do this. The first is by using flattery. The second is by conforming their opinions to those of the group and the third way is by presenting themselves only in a way in which the group would approve of. Intimidation is comprised of action to make one appear strong and threatening. This is usually done by force or threat of force in order to get the group to conform to a person's point-of-view. Supplication is made up of actions that are designed to make one appear needy and helpless, so as to elicit help from others. Self-promotion is made up of verbal claims of responsibility for the occurrence of positive events. In this strategy a person always tries to make them selves appear to be responsible for any positive events that occur. Exemplification consists of behaviors that are intended to make one appear highly moral and upstanding. People often use this strategy to more or less guilt people into liking them (Christopher, Lasane, Troisi and Park, n.d.).
4) Please list and describe each of the decision-making strategies used by families? Which do you feel to be most effective? Why?
Individual members of families often serve different roles in decisions that ultimately draw on shared family resources. Some individuals do nothing more than gather information. They seek out information about things that are relevant. These people often have a great deal of power because they choose to only pass on information that favors what choices they would like to have. Influencers do not in the end have the power to make choices between alternatives, but they may make their desires known by asking for specific things or by causing embarrassing situations if their demands are not met. The decision maker has the power to determine the final say on issues. Family decisions often lead to a great deal of conflict. The reality is that very few families are strong enough to avoid tension between the demands on the family's resources. Conflicting forces are particularly likely in families with children or in a family where only one spouse works outside the home. Many decisions innately come down to values, and unfortunately there is no easy ways to settle differences that involve values. The situation becomes even more complex when more parties such as children or other relatives are involved (Families and Family Decision Making, 2008).
Often family members resort to various strategies in order to get their own way. One of these is bargaining. This is where one member will give up something in return for someone else. Another strategy is reasoning which entails trying to get the other people to accept one's view by using logical arguments or examples. Even when this is attempted with a sincere intent, its probability is limited by the rational differences in the people's values. Some people simply…