Health-Nursing Avian Influenza Avian Influenza

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

Firstly, countries experiencing outbreaks need to rapidly share human and animal viruses with laboratories in the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network. Analysis of these viruses determines the possible needs for changes in the prototype vaccine "see" strains which WHO makes available to the pharmaceutical industry." Secondly, companies need to engage in research on pandemic vaccine development that includes a pilot production of small batches for clinical testing. Thirdly, public health agencies need to engage in discussion with pharmaceutical companies to explore areas of common interest in vaccine development and identify areas where support is needed."

According to the report located online at (http:www.who.iont/wer/2004/en/wer7942.pdf),WHO made the prototype seed strain for an H5N1 vaccine available to manufacturers in April 2004. However, only two of the approximate 12 companies that produce flu vaccines have moved ahead with a vaccine. Aventis Pasteur, Inc. And Chiron Corp., both of the U.S. have produced small batches to be used in clinical trials, which are not expected to take place before year's end.

IV. Measures being taken to minimize public health risks:

WHO: Reduce opportunities for human exposure to the virus, vaccination of high-risk individuals. Proper clothing and equipment against infections for those involved in the culling of poultry flocks. Workers receiving antiviral drugs as a prophylactic measure.

Testing is rapid and reliable. Antiviral drugs are effective against influenza A virus strains but have limitations, these drugs are expensive and supplies are limited. Production of influenza vaccines are considerable but as it changes years to year in composition to match the antigenic drift it takes four months to produce new vaccine in significant quantities.

An immediate ban on the import of all birds from Cambodia, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, People's Republic of China (including Hong Kong), SAR, South Korea, Thailand and Vietnam has been issued by the U.S. government. The ban is enforced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Animal Health Inspection Service, Bureau of Customs, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the interior and Border Protection of the Department of Homeland Security

V. Surveillance and monitoring of Health-Care Workers:

Standards for monitoring health-care workers are inclusive of the following:

Watch for developing of fever, respiratory symptoms, and eye infections for one week after exposure. Upon becoming ill seek medical care and notify provider of exposure to avian flue. Stay home for 24 hours after ending of fever. While at home practice good "Respiratory Hygiene and Cough Etiquette" to avoid transferring virus to others. Full report available at http://www.osha.gov/dsg/guidance/avaian-flu.html.

VI: Conclusion:

Avian flu is a situation that needs to be monitored closely by healthcare workers for avoiding exposure to and transmission of this deadly and highly contagious disease.

Bibliography

Avian Influenza - Fact Sheet (2004) World Health Organization Web site [Online] available at http://www.who.int/csr/don/2004_01_15/en/

Guidance for Protecting Workers Against Avian Flu

http://www.osha.gov/dsg/guidance/avaian-flu.html

Weekly Epidemiological Record: Avian Influenza Thailand

http://www.who.int/wer/2004/en/wer7942.pdf

Interim Recommendations for Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities Caring for Patients with Known or Suspected Avian Influenza

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/professional/infect-control.htm

Weekly Epidemiological Record: Avian Influenza Thailand

http://www.who.int/wer/2004/en/wer7942.pdf

Prevention of Avian Influenza (2004) available [Online] located at http://www.info.gov.hk/info/flu/eng/global.htm

Avian Influenza - Fact Sheet (2004) World Health Organization Web site [Online] available at http://www.who.int/csr/don/2004_01_15/en/

Interim Recommendations for Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities Caring for Patients with Known or Suspected Avian Influenza http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/professional/infect-control.htm http:www.who.iont/wer/2004/en/wer7942.pdf

Avian Influenza