In conclusion, it would be advantageous to use the TRA for this project since studies have shown successful outcomes with this theory in past HIV / AIDS prevention programs. By providing appropriate knowledge or information, eventually the performance of a given behavior will be influenced. This HIV / AIDS prevention program will be education for seventh to eighth grade students in HIV / AIDS with the intent to change belief leading to a change in behavior. The TRA can provide a workable theoretical framework that has been used successfully in the past with HIV / AIDS education.
This study will attempt to answer the following questions:
Can an interactive school-based HIV / AIDS prevention/education program for multiethnic urban seventh and eighth graders increase their knowledge about HIV / AIDS, promote positive attitudes towards people with AIDS and encourage the desire for changes in the high risk behavior.
An HIV educational program intervention will be used. The design consists of a pre-test and post-test evaluation of an educational intervention on HIV / AIDS prevention to seventh and eighth grade students. The pre and post test is a modified version of the Healthy Oakland Teens Survey developed by the University of California which can be completed in twenty minutes. The survey is intended to be used for a multiethnic, urban population of seventh and eighth graders. The same survey has been chosen for this study because it was designed for a similar population of students: multiethnic, urban, seventh and eighth graders, belonging to families not economically well-off, some barely managing to survive.
The school has a total of seventh and eighth grade students in the total population of the school. All of these students will be enlisted in the HIV educational program based on the curriculum for the Healthy Oakland Teens Project.
The investigation will perform the intervention which will consist of an interactive two and one half hour HIV / AIDS educational program adapted from the curriculum for the Healthy Oakland Teens Project.
Students will be given a pre-test and a post-test at the beginning of the program. Each pre and post-test handed to the student will have the same number on the left-hand corner so that pre and post-tests could later be matched. Students will be told not to place their names on either test. All pre-tests are pink and all post tests are blue. Students are handed both tests in a blank manilla envelope at the same time. Students will be instructed to take the pink pre-test prior to the HIV program and to place the test back in the envelope when finished. After the programs students will be instructed by the investigator to take the blue post test out of the envelope and when finished taking the survey place the test back in the envelope. All the blank manilla envelopes will be collected after the post tests are completed. No names or identifiers will be used. The tests are randomly handed to the students in the blank manilla envelopes. No name is used and there is no way to link students' names with the data. All the results are recorded as group data.
Setting: The study will take place during the students' science class at the charter school.
The sample will consist of 37 seventh and eighth grade students. This include students in seventh and eighth grade at the school who had permission by their parents to attend a program on HIV. This program is part of the school's customary educational practices and philosophies. The students whose parents do not want the child to participate in educational learning on controversial topics such as HIV are to be identified by the co-directors of the school and are removed from the program and given an alternative assignment by their teachers.
The independent variable in this study is an HIV / AIDS interactive educational program to seventh and eighth grade students. The educational program is a modified version of the Healthy Oakland. Teens Project 1995-1996 curriculum which includes a system and HIV, transmission, protection, and myths and facts about HIV / AIDS, a 20 minute video, "In Our Own Words: Teens and AIDS" by Jean Blake, will be shown as part of the program. A question and answer session by the investigator follows the video and students are encouraged to express their thoughts. Also an interaction HIV transmission will be implemented during the program
The first problem this study will address is whether educational intervention could change a student's attitudes towards HIV / AIDS. Several aspects of the student's attitudes will be assessed: student's comfort level in discussing HIV / AIDS related topics with their parents/guardian.
This study focuses on the educational content towards only students. To efficiently facilitate communication between students and parents the educational program should focus on educating both parents and children.
The study will also assess the students' comfort level associating with someone with HIV / AIDS. As part of the educational program, the students will be shown the video "In Our Own Words: Teens and AIDS. This video will present "Give your love to individuals infected with HIV" and talking candidly to peers about HIV / AIDS issues. The purpose of the video's format is to encourage a more comfortable rapport with individuals infected with HIV.
The second problem to be addressed by this study is whether an educational intervention could change a student's intent toward risk-taking behavior. One manifestation of the student's risk-taking behavior is his attitudes toward condoms. Therefore, there will always exist a group of students that must be made to understand the importance of condom use in the practice of safe sex.
The California study produced interesting results as to how educational intervention affects the fears and concerns students have towards sexually transmitted disease. Two questions focused on the students' concerns about contracting HIV / AIDS or sexually transmitted diseases. Both questions showed that educational intervention caused a shift from students who were "very worried" to students who were "somewhat worried." These results are encouraging because they suggest that the educational interventions effectively addressed the concerns of students and positively influenced their attitudes.
The strongest data that the previous study produced shows a significant increase in the knowledge of students concerning HIV / AIDS. The questions showed an increase in knowledge is a result of the educational intervention concerning the transmission of the HIV virus. Several questions addressed some of the false myths about HIV transmission like "you can get AIDS from a swimming pool or toilet seat (questions 14 & 15. Table 3). Both of the questions showed a statistically significant (p-value