international political order is in a state if anarchy. Discuss.
Similar to all politics, international politics is basically about conflict management and the re-creation of the community. The nature of such politics is more than the combination of 18,000 possible mutual relationships between the 192 states across the globe today. While these mutual relationships are significant in politics at the global level, the nature of world politics incorporates wider political processes. There are divergent descriptions about international politics as some people consider it as the pursuit of the good whereas others view it as the struggle for power, and others as the art and science of governing. However, these simple descriptions fail to fully express the multifaceted nature of political realm because of the difficulties in capturing the core of the huge field of human activity in a solitary idiom.
The five major facets of international politics are community, power, interests, governance, and economic structures. The communities with which human beings normally organize themselves are the first major aspects of politics. Consequently, these political communities are in varying shapes, types, and sizes and exist in different amounts of time. The international political order is also centered on the economic structures created by each political community for itself. As the other major facet of international politics, governance basically entails the setting of rules for a community, exercise of authority, and resolving conflicts based on the established rules.
In consideration of whether politics at the global level is in a state of anarchy, it's important to analyze global governance in international politics. One of the most evident features regarding international politics is its similarity to politics within communities. This similarity is the fact that politics at the global level is characterized by an attempt to offer governance structures in order to avoid chaotic and bloody conflicts. Consequently, the focus of global governance is to resolve the inevitable conflicts that emanate from the huge number of people who are organized in groups and seeking their interests. The five main areas of global conflicts are conflicts over the environment, independence, power and dominance, wealth and its distribution, and rightness and justice.
There are various factors that contribute to the anarchical nature of governance in international politics. These factors have developed to become common features of global politics because of their huge impact. These characteristics include & #8230;
Global governance in world politics is characterized by conflicts that make it to be in a state of anarchy since the general desire for independence of political communities produces ongoing struggles between them. These struggles and conflicts between political communities can also be associated with the attempts by some communities to dominate others and the pursuit to avoid domination by other communities. The daily aspects of international politics consist of ongoing jealousies between people and governments including displeasures, quarrels, and conflicts (Dyck, n.d., p. 443). The jealousies sometime explode into struggles for dominance marked with efforts to expand control and accomplish security that can come with this control.
The perpetual conflicts have continued to be a feature of international politics regardless of the efforts by political communities to control, manage, and restrict the damages of war. In addition, international politics is also marked by efforts of some political communities to use war and force as tools of prevailing in conflicts of interests above others. Together with the anarchical nature of global politics, the perseverance of dominance struggles is a reflection of the use of force and war as unavoidable features of international politics. The nature of international politics is anarchical because world history has always been dominated by different kinds of wars such as civil, independence, national liberation, guerilla, attrition, and humanitarian wars.
Managing global economy has been one of the essential aspects of international politics because it focuses on the relationships between industrialized countries and the division between the rich and poor in the modern international system. Governments within the international system are forced to pursue mechanisms for conquering political problems that emanate from marketplace allocations. This is largely because of the lack of an overarching authority that is capable of economic management and regulation in the modern international system.
There have been several concentrated global efforts towards economic regulation and management with the first being traced back to the end of the Second World War. These efforts were established by governments to try and resolve economic problems that are brought by financial challenges. International politics is in a state of anarchy because there are various economic problems associated with the instability of the global economic system.
This is the final aspect of the anarchical nature of international politics because of the global problems that are brought by increases in population. The increases in population, which results in global environmental problems like environmental degradation, are due to people's beliefs of their freedom to breed. Global environmental degradation is also caused by the negative consequences of overpopulation, pollution, and overexploitation.
This problem has continued to persist because of the apparent absence of global authorities to determine people's behavior and enforce such decisions. While global governance incorporates efforts to solve the problem of environmental degradation, conquering this tragedy has been difficult making international politics to be in a chaotic state.
2. Discuss any theory in the context of political development.
Development is described as the revolution of natural, human, and material resources at different societal levels to improve the quality of lives of people and groups. This transformation can occur at local, national, regional, and international levels of social interactions. There are various challenges to global development that are classified into three categories i.e. human security, poverty and inequality, and environmental stress and degradation.
With the different levels of developments of all countries across the globe, the main discussions of global development have been centered on improving people's conditions within a specific country. Actually, the varying levels of development across the globe have resulted in the classification of countries into developed, developing, less developed, underdeveloped, and Third World nations.
The explanation of what political development really entails is subject to debate because of the huge controversies regarding the question of development. These contentions are despite of the general agreement by analysts that development involve change processes. Unlike social and economic development, evaluating political environment is more difficult because of the lack of appropriate indicators of political development. The evaluation of political development is difficult because quantifying political variables that deal with institutions, values and beliefs, and power is challenging (Dyck, n.d., p. 384).
The debate on political development is further complicated by the existing ideological and cultural differences. However, there are two main measures of political development that can be identified despite of the disagreements in literature. These measures are the degree of political stability and the degree of state capacity as well as the recent inclusion of governmental representation and responsiveness issues.
Under the degree of state capacity, political development entails the development of specialized and distinguished government institutions with the capacity to conduct governmental functions effectively. This includes the legislative, executive, and judicial functions that deal with making, implementing, and adjudicating public policy and laws respectively. Within the degree of political stability, political development entails addressing the resolution of political disputes and conflicts. The concept behind the degree of governmental responsiveness and representation is that politically developed nations have governments respect people's basic rights and liberties and respond to wider segments of the society.
There are various theories in the context of political including modernization theories and the dependency theories, which emerged after the decline of the influence of theories of modernization. These theories developed as alternative paradigms of political development as they provided a new explanation of poverty and underdevelopment problems in the south. Unlike theories of world system that described the growth and impact of capitalism and imperialism on both political and economic systems, the theories of dependency were narrower in scope. These theories explored the outcomes of colonialism, global capitalism, and imperialism for the development on nations within the southern region.
Theories of dependency can be classified as a subset of world system theories though there are considerable differences among the two. While modernization theories regarded underdevelopment as a natural condition on a linear development process, theories of dependency don't see any natural thing about underdevelopment. Based on one dependency theory, underdevelopment was developed as a result of uneven political and economic interactions between developed and underdeveloped countries. Therefore, the examination and diagnoses of underdevelopment problems was based on the exploration of the use of power in apportioning and dispensing resources, particularly economic resources.
The analysis resulted in the emergence of two wide positions i.e. focus on international relations between the center and periphery and emphasis on internal structures within nations on the periphery. The uneven interactions between core and periphery were explained on the basis of global division of labor that was created by the core countries and served as the main determinant of…