lung cancer as compared to other leading causes of death in your state. Include the mortality rates and the costs of lung cancer (for the most recent year reported) in your analysis.
Pennsylvania is one of the 7 states that has the second highest incidence of all states in the U.S.A. with lung cancer rankling as one of its leading causes of deaths caused by all illnesses. 66.4 to 74.7% per 100, 000 citizens are diagnosed with lung cancer yearly according to the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group
On the other hand, compared to most states, Pennsylvania also seems to show the second-highest level of effective treatment for lung cancer with only 47.1 to 52.0 annual deaths compared to the highest mortality rate level of annual deaths from lung cancer (56.8 to 74.6) in the mostly southern states.
According to the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute of Pennsylvania, approximately, 3236 cases of lung cancer are reported annually in that state, making it the third largest diagnosed and recurring cancer preceded only by brain cancer (first) and female breast cancer. Men seem to have the greatest incidence (128) with women (99). This is the standard incidence ratio of every 100 cases. The annual mortality rates of lung cancer were 2,393 with the ratio being 104:86 males to females.
Graphs on survival rates of lung caner in Pennsylvania (Northeast Regional Cancer Institute of Pennsylvania) showed that the soonest the cancer was diagnosed the higher were rates for survival. Lung cancer diagnosed within the first few months had the highest rate, but if caught before the end of the first year, survival rate was only 40%. By the 2nd year, chances for survival were only 20%. The majority of other cancer rate in comparison showed a far higher level of survival and possibility of treatment with success, as for instance, in the case of prostrate cancer sometimes approaching 100%.
2.Analyze the three (3) key risk factors associated with lung cancer as it pertains to your state (Pennsylvania).
3.Rank the three (3) key risk factors from order of biggest public health concern. Provide statistics or specific evidence from your state to support your ranking
1. Smoking -- tobacco smoke causes approximately 9 out of 10 cases of lung cancer in Pennsylvania. The longer the person has been smoking, the more chance of being diagnosed with lung cancer. Secondary smoke also results in diagnosis (Penn Medicine: Lung cancer risk and prevention)
2. Radon - radioactive gas released by the normal breakdown of uranium in soil and rocks. Some states have it to a higher degree than others depending on the quality of soil, and Pennsylvania is one of the states in the U.S.A. that has it to the largest degree. Radon is insidious in that it can't be seen, tested or smelt and builds up indoors.
3. Asbestos -- People who work with asbestos -- which a large number of industries in Pennsylvania are occupied with -- have a higher risk of getting lung cancer aside from the possibility of their developing mesothelioma (Penn Medicine: Lung cancer risk and prevention)
4.For the highest key risk factor that you ranked above, analyze the efforts your state has taken to address that factor over the past 10 years.
Thoracic surgeons, pulmonologists, nurses, respiratory therapists, rehabilitation specialists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and pathologists in all leading hospitals in Pennsylvania attempt to diagnose lung cancer early and to treat it with surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. They are also testing new surgical procedures, applying new drug therapies and developing the protocols for proton therapy and other radiation therapies (Penn Medicine.)
Aside from offering a comprehensive Smoking Treatment Program for people who need help to quit smoking (Penn Lung Center), Penn medicine also advocates in regards to its three highest risk factors for lung cancer that peoples should:
Test and treat their home for radon.
Protect themselves from cancer-causing chemicals at work, and,
Maintain a good diet with lots of fruits and vegetables. (Penn Medicine http://www.penncancer.org/patients/cancer-types/lung-cancers-related-disorders/about-lung-cancer/lung-cancer-risk-and-prevention/)
5.Consider the efforts your state has taken to overcome this risk factor. Then, recommend at least two (2) new tactics…