Motivation and Personality
In a formal work environment, personalities, values, ethics, attitudes and culture play an important role in making the workplace-environment a comfortable one. These factors can significantly influence the conflicts that workers might experience at a personal as well as professional level. Every individual is different. This individual reacts to situations differently. It often observed that people tend to display a behavior pattern that is considered acceptable for their jobs-designations and positions. (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993) in reality however, they might not always believe adhering to accepted forms of behavior; thus creating situations stressful for themselves and others. This dissonance experienced by the worker might ultimately affect his or her productivity. The invariable result is low job satisfaction. In addition "faking either positive or negative emotions was significantly related to emotional exhaustion" eventually resulting in the worker burnout. (Karl, Peluchette, & Harland, 2007)
In addition, a lack of fit between personalities and attitudes can also lead to conflicts. Conflicts in teams can be generally classified into three types: relationship conflicts, task conflicts and process conflicts. Each of these conflicts can have different impacts on teams within an organization. (Jackson, Mannix, Peterson, & Trochim, 2003) There are two different types of conflict: emotional and cognitive. and, both these are impacted by personal issues. The first, Emotional conflict manifests into defensive and resentful behavior. Emotional conflict is rooted in anger, personal friction, personality clashes, ego and tension. "Cognitive conflicts," on the other hand are largely depersonalized and "consist of argumentation about the merits of ideas, plans and projects," according to Jackson et al.
Culture, upbringing, the society in which individuals grow and live, all have the ability of influence culture or cultural tolerance. Conflict-tolerance is often determined by how individuals view policy, evaluate decisions and relate to others in the society. We also form opinions and ideas based on our exposure to situations. Sensitivity to issues of gender, race, culture and religion are becoming increasingly important to organization. Many of these features are also becoming ingrained in the organizational culture as a result of the values and the opinions that individuals might have. Not every individual is identical. And if those in a group agree on a vast majority of topics they will differ on at least some of their beliefs and values. The cognitive dissonance theory suggests that humans will seek balance or homeostasis in their lives and will resist influences or expectations to change.
Abraham H. Maslow and Douglas M. McGregor both believed that in order for people to work to their full potential, they're basic needs had to be satisfied. (Maslow, Stephens, & Heil, 1998) the basic needs are physiological needs, security needs, the need for affiliation, the need to feel self-esteem and the need for self-actualization. People always aim to find ways to satisfy their basic needs and as such will tend to tolerate or endure more to full their basic needs but once their basic needs are fulfilled they will then seek to ensure that their morale's match those of the organization.
In general, people also tend to find work environments that suit their personal beliefs and ethical ideals. For instance, a person against abortion will find it very difficult to work at an abortion clinic, but might find it easier to work for an orphanage even if it involves a lower salary. However, if survival is the issue and money is a concern, people will tend to suppress their beliefs and values. This can take a huge toil on the well being of the individual. Worker dynamics and peer pressure can also eventually impact personal beliefs.
In societies that have very traditional hierarchical structures based on age and sex, as seen in the Japanese and Chinese cultures, conflicts with regards to age, sex and social standing also can arise. Understanding cultures and values of individuals all over the world is necessary to evaluate basic motivational values. At a fundamental level, the needs are the same but they are influenced by society and the culture of the region. For instance, the need to accumulate wealth and personal prosperity is evident in almost all regions and societies of the world. But the means or the approach towards gaining or accumulating wealth could differ. Many Middle Eastern societies frown upon women working; the man is still the primary bread winner for the family however in the West working women are the reason family wealth is greater that…