The Twenty-First Amendment to the Constitution is the only case of amendment through this venue.
Congress calling a National Convention at the request of the legislator and three-fourths of the States ratifying the amendment. This form has never been utilized for Constitutional amendment.
VI. Leadership in Government
It takes many skills of leadership and communication to hold a political office. There are not only the areas of "right" or "wrong" which must be considered by the different mores' with in society, particularly in the world at large, that demand that the President be multi-skilled in interacting with individuals, groups, corporations, organizations and the leaders of other governments.
The United States has had a varied kaleidoscope of Presidents in the perception of style and personality. There was Theodore "Teddy Roosevelt" known for shouting "Bully"! There was also John F. Kennedy, whose aura of glamour and willingness to stand against the bureaucracy and for individual rights made him loved and cherished by the American people. President Richard Nixon and his Watergate scandal certainly demonstrated the very thing that the Constitution stands in prevention of and the former President with his strong empowerment of government agencies and political offices is an affront to everything the Constitution was drafted to defend the people of the United States against. Former President Ronald Reagan was noted for having said that he wanted to:
Bring our government back under control and make it acceptable to people."
Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. wrote in "A Thousand Days" that:
Kennedy....was determined to..recover presidential control over the sprawling feudalism of government. This became a central theme of his administration and, in some respects, a central frustration. The presidential government, coming to Washing aglow with new ideas and euphoric sense that it could not go wrong, promptly collided with the feudal barons of the permanent government, confronted by this invasion, began almost to function....as a resistance movement, shattering to the "maquis" in order to pick off the intruders. This was especially true in foreign affairs."
The Communication Process and Communication with Other Cultures
President Kennedy state in reference to foreign affairs that:
The President bears the burden of the responsibility
The advisors may move on to new advice."
The President, in his capacity as both Commander in Chief as well as that of Chief Diplomat experiences the overlapping effect in these two roles. With National security, foreign policy issues and domestic programs it appears that Henry M. Jackson, Senator was correct when he stated:
The boundary between foreign and domestic policy has almost been erased."
In 1947 "The National Security Council" was created for advising the President on policy in the areas of Domestic Foreign and military that related to National Security issues.
President John F. Kennedy did not make use of the NSC demoting it to use as "for appearance sake" purposes due to its' having formed sub-committee upon sub-committee. President Richard Nixon however, full reinstated the NSC as the "principle form for Presidential consideration of foreign policy issues." Henry A. Kissinger was President Nixon's National security advisor.
As already stated, there have been changes to the Constitution throughout history. Some changes more gradual than others. Then there are those of the present Bush administration where changes, and astronomical in size changes have been made. It is not so hard to remember when it was unheard of that Constitutional rights were violated. Sure there were events that happened, however for the most part the "superiority" of the Constitutional rules stood strong and unswerving.
In the 1970's the peaceful protestors met with no problems. Such is not the case in today's form of government. For example, a peaceful protest at the G8 Summit led to harassment of a group that was in Brunswick staging a peaceful protest through the renovation of old houses that the community is now using for housing young and un-wed mothers.
The decades of the 1980's were of slow and gradual changes that moved within the governing individuals, institutions and bodies within the society of The United States. Even with the Watergate event, the changes were not nearly as radical as those which have materialized recently. The decades of the eighties moved in a gradual shift that certainly picked up speed in the events of recent governmental shifts.
Resistance to Change
Recent resistance to change has flourished among grass root movements with Civil Right Activists speaking up of late in support of Constitutional rights that the newly passed Acts of Congress have made null and void. Police torture in jails and prisons have always been reported in hushed whispers, however, it has recently come to light that this type of abuse of power is the "accepted norm" in the demeanor of the Homeland Security and Patriot Acts that have effectively stripped American citizens of their constitutional rights. How quickly can those things so vital be legislated away if the citizens are not paying close attention or if their attention is averted or over-entertained or placated.
It is important to note that the European Union is addressing the actions approved by the U.S. President as being prosecutable under the Geneva Convention, which is the basis for World Court rules concerning the treatment of prisoners during times of war.
In fact, most Americans, have not realized the enormity of the changes wrought by the Patriot and Homeland Security Acts in terms of damage to the U.S. Constitution.
Author, Norman Livergood presented as questions, in his essay titled, "The Necessity of Enlightened Thinking":
How could Germans living under Hitler's National Socialism not have seen what it was? How did their lack of social and personal awareness make them blind to their reality?"
Livergood gives as examples of rapid change and progressive loss of freedom in the United States the following examples:
1. "The American people lost the right to elect their president when the U.S. Supreme Court committed a "coup d' etat" by approving the stealing of the presidency by George W. Bush in spite of the major media companies paying millions to contrive a "recount" which they falsely claim proves Bush won the election."
2. The 11/14/01 announcement that any person designated as a terrorist by the President is to be placed under the control of the Secretary of Defense and is not allowed the aid of U.S. Or foreign courts (is a) giant step in our march toward a total police state. Persons are being held in American prisons without being allowed to contact their attorney. The consultations between persons in American prisons and their attorneys are being monitored by "justice" officials.
3. Men, women and children can be murdered without compunction as at Ruby Ridge and Waco and the person ultimately responsible for these "police-state" atrocities will be promoted to become the head of the agency guilty of these crimes."
Another recent report concerning a court decision in Louisiana should be shocking at the very least, and indeed should have our fore fathers roaming the halls of the buildings in Washington at night, awakened from death's sleep by mere virtue of the fact that the Constitution has been so rudely, violently and nonchalantly tossed aside. In this report it is relayed that a 5th Circuit, Louisiana Court ruled that Police Officers no longer need a search or arrest warrant to conduct a brief search of your home or business.
Former U.S. Attorney, Julian Murray, was quoted as saying that, "I think it goes way too far." According to the Constitution this attorney is completely correct. The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is quite clear and concise as to this breach of power in Louisiana. The Fourth Amendment states that:
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or thing to be seized."
The fore fathers of America, in their creation, drafting and signing of the Constitution certainly were influenced by John Locke as he expressed in his view of individual rights the following:
The natural liberty of man is to be free from any superior power on earth and not to be under the will or legislative authority of man, but to have only the law of nature for his rule. The liberty of man, in society, is to be under no other legislative power but that established by consent in the commonwealth, nor under the dominion of any will, or restraint of law, but what the legislative shall enact, according to the truth put in it."
It is important that it is kept in mind that each and every administration of government will commit actions and make laws that are not approved of by some sector of society. However, when those laws and those actions have tread upon the U.S. Constitution, the very document that lays out the basic rules…