Osteoporosis affects the bones of a person and makes the person more vulnerable to getting a fracture. Osteoporosis is a bone disease which predominantly affects women after menopause and the same is called postmenopausal Osteoporosis. It is believed to affect women much severely than men but there is no denying that the disease can affect men too, the possibility however is less. The disease is caused by a hormonal disorder or may even occur if a person intakes a wrong medicine or medication. The disease affects the quality of life and also the life expectancy of a person looking from a long-term perspective. This paper will throw light upon the disease and how exactly it gets triggered off in a person. How the disease affects the oral cavity will also be thrown light upon in the paper.
The most worrying factor about the disease is that it has no symptoms; the biggest symptom of the disease is when it starts weakening the bones of a person and ultimately makes the person more vulnerable to a bone fracture. Research goes to show that excessive drinking in a very young age is likely to trigger off this disease in an individual, however it is believed that intake of small amounts of alcohol is beneficial in preventing the disease. One of the main reasons of its occurrence is the deficiency of vitamin D in people. Since the disease is related to the bones it becomes obvious that it occurs due to the deficiency of vitamin D
Formation of Osteoporosis
The condition of porous bone is better known as Osteoporosis, affects the bones of an affected person and makes the bones fragile. If the disease is left unnoticed, it can very quickly start affecting almost all parts of the body and the result will can be devastating. The disease only comes to the notice of most people when they break a bone or two, to avoid the same an individual must consult the doctor and get more awareness about the disease. Early prevention and treatment can help the patient avoid a lot of pain and undesirable circumstances.
The bones in our body are tissues which get broken and formed constantly, in an early phase of life a normal individual witnesses more bone formation than breakage. The same also allows the skeleton to grow and take shape. It is believed that when a normal individual reaches 30 years of age, the bones are in the best of shape also forming the "peak bone mass." "After this peak, bone maintains an equilibrium until about age 50 in women and 60 in men. Then, bone breaks down faster than it forms. The resulting bone loss affects both men and women. Bone loss can lead to osteoporosis." (Osteoporosis, 11 December 2008)
Osteoporosis in Children
Osteoporosis can occur in children too, children become more vulnerable to the disease if there is a family member who has a past record of the same disease. Childhood gives each child and parent a very wonderful opportunity to prevent this disease; this is because the bone biology starts developing at this phase of life for the children. Children can be prevented from this disease by ensuring that there is sufficient calcium intake in their diet. "A recent study showed that teenagers in the United States frequently have inadequate calcium intake, and their calcium intake is inversely correlated with soda pop intake -- meaning that the more pop they drink, the less calcium they are likely to get! Current recommendations for calcium intake are shown in the accompanying table. For teenagers, this translates into four servings from the milk group daily. Milk is a nice choice for calcium because in the U.S. milk is supplemented with vitamin D, which helps the body utilize calcium." (Prevention and treatment of Osteoporosis, 11 December 2008).
Another important preventive measure which must be taken if there is a family member who has been affected by the disease is to get a DEXA scan of the children in the family done. This scan gives a good indication of the bone density of an individual and it is used to determine whether and individual has a normal bone density or not. These were some of the measures which must be taken to ensure that no child suffers from this deadly disease.
Causes of Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis occurs when an imbalance occurs between new bone formation and old bone resorption. The body may fail to form enough new bone, or too much old bone may be reabsorbed, or both. Two essential minerals for normal bone formation are calcium and phosphate. Throughout youth, the body uses these minerals to produce bones." (Osteoporosis, 11 December 2008). Lack of sufficient calcium intake is the most common reason of the occurrence of this disease. This happens because the lack of calcium affects the bone production and the bone tissue resulting in the occurrence of the disease. Calcium plays a pivotal role in a human beings body, Calcium is imperative for the proper functioning of the most important body organs like heart, brain etc. If there is an improper diet which consists of insufficient intake of calcium, the result invariably will be fragile and brittle bones and this is exactly how osteoporosis develops in individuals. The disease is only diagnosed when an affected person fractures their bone but by then it usually is a little too late because the disease already reaches its advanced stage in an individual.
The most noticeable cause of the disease is the lack of a particular hormone, in women it's the hormone estrogen which causes this disease and in their counterparts its androgen which causes the disease. The disease mainly affects women older than 60 years; they get affected once they reach the stage of menopause. The estrogen hormone in woman gets reduced when she reached the stage of menopause. In addition to lack of this hormone, women may also get affected by the disease if their body mass index is far from being ideal in other words if a woman is obese, she is very likely to get affected by this disease.
Other conditions that may lead to osteoporosis include overuse of corticosteroids
Cushing syndrome), thyroid problems, lack of muscle use, bone cancer, certain genetic disorders, use of certain medications, and problems such as low calcium in the diet." (Osteoporosis, 11 December 2008).
Effects of Osteoporosis on the Oral Cavity majority of elderly persons have lost one or more teeth, a condition that adversely affects the ability to maintain an adequate nutritional intake. Presence of a systemic disease, such as osteoporosis, is one of several factors thought to lead to tooth loss in older adults. Many studies with elderly populations have shown associations between low bone mineral density and number of missing teeth, increased levels of alveolar bone loss, and clinical measures of periodontal disease. However, the clinical significance of systemic bone loss density in contributing to the loss of oral bone and teeth is unknown. Future studies will determine if nutritional interventions could play a role in preventing tooth loss. Until there is more evidence, patients should follow the current recommendations for calcium and vitamin D intakes to ensure overall health." (the Oral Effects of Osteoporosis, 11 December 2008).
Research goes to prove that Osteoporosis causes tooth loss in elderly people, this occurs because the disease directly affects the density of bones which support the teeth. The density of the bones is reduced by the disease inevitably causing tooth loss in elderly people. Intra- oral dental graphs are being developed by the researchers; it is believed that these graphs will help in the detection of this disease. It becomes highly imperative for a person suffering from Osteoporosis to get the general appearance of their jaw bones because the disease severely affects the oral cavity. This is usually done with the help of radiograph which show the shape of the bones in the mouth of a person.
Symptoms and the treatment of the disease
The panel indicated that bone mass attained during childhood is the most important determinant of life-long skeletal health, and that achieving optimum bone mass early in life reduces the impact of bone loss related to aging. However, only 10% of girls and 25% of boys between ages 9 and 17 obtain an adequate amount of calcium in their diet. There is also strong evidence that physical activity early in life contributes to higher peak bone mass. Clinical trials have shown that exercise reduces the risk of falls by approximately 25%, and falls are a major cause of fractures in people with osteoporosis." (Osteoporosis Treatment, 11 December 2008)
Hormone replacement therapy is the most common treatment which individuals suffering from the disease undergo. There are new medicines which have been invented to treat and cure the disease and such medicines are available in the market. Some of the most effective medicines include the likes of bisphosphonates and selective estrogen receptor modulators.
The disease causes no symptoms early on;…