Racial Profiling Since 911 the

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

(U.S. Racial Profiling Both Wrong and Counter-Productive, Says Amnesty) Ever since the incident of September 11, 2001 an extensive increase in the racial profiling at airports is reported especially in case of people appearing to be Muslim or of South Asian or Middle Eastern descent. (Racial Profiling: Testimony from Amnesty International USA's hearings on Racial Profiling. Victims Accounts of Racial Profiling While Traveling Through Airports) This is so acute that even some are fearful to travel with passengers appearing to be of Middle-Eastern. It has gone to such an extreme of cases that in one case a man going for the wedding of his brother in Pakistan was told to board down from his flight since the flight crew did not feel safe flying with you. He left the plane and missed the wedding feeling humiliated. As a sign of the extent to which the Americans are divergent from their consciences out of fear it was observed that even the African-Americans who have since long hated the very concept of racial profiling found themselves meticulously watching their fellow passengers appearing to be Arabs or Muslims in the period immediately following the incident of 9/11. (Chapter Six: The Struggle for Political Equality: What's at Stake in Racial Profiling?)

One of the shocking illustrations was that of an eight-year-old Muslim Boy Scout of Tulsa, Oklahoma, being separated from his family caught hold by the airport security officials who snatched from him the soap box derby car and dismantled on the plea of security concerns. The boy was stopped as a matter of routine check and searched. (Racial Profiling Much Worse since 9/11, Amnesty Says) Even the experienced employees of the air ports belonging to such communities were not escaped while traveling with their families on vacations. The statement of Mahmoud El Rosoul, a Muslim American citizen at the hearing in Dallas is worth considering in this regard. Mr. El Rosoul has been engaged as an engineer for a major airline company for about 22 years. While returning from the family vacation in Hawaii, in March 2003, Mr. El Rosoul was interrogated at the checkpoint simple due to the reason that the tickets were marked by American Airlines. The family members including three children each of below 10 years old were dragged out of the line and were thoroughly searched. The prolonged search made them miss the flight and was compelled to spend the night in the airport at Los Angeles. (Racial Profiling: Testimony from Amnesty International USA's hearings on Racial Profiling)

However, airplanes were not considered to be the only fields that the Arabs were marked out. The Arab-Americans or visitors were bothered on the streets, in their cars and even at home. They were dragged over by the police, cross-examined on trains, and nabbed at times in several times. Of course, many are freed soon; however, some are put into jail particularly in cases of immigration related accusations until they were finally exonerated. Still others particularly, come out to be associated with organizations those planned to terrorize Americans, making it difficult to perceive the process of racial profiling as a straight problem of right vs. wrong. (Chapter Six: The Struggle for Political Equality: What's at Stake in Racial Profiling? )

In the case of Kimberly, 'Asma' Al-Hamsi, an American Muslim wearing a hijab and walking with a crutch in consequence to the multiple sclerosis, was detained with her son, deaf and suffering from cerebral palsy at a mall in Grapeice, Texas, by a man and a couple of women telling her that they do not belong to the country. As per her statement at the Amnesty hearings, the police in civil dress interrogated and told she was being charged with terrorism, hate crimes and disorderly conduct. The FBI agents were called in to interrogate her about her ethnicity and solicited her views on the war in Iraq, asking to which innumerable Arab and South Asian immigrants have been subject over the past several years. (U.S. Racial Profiling Both Wrong and Counter-Productive, Says Amnesty)

President George W. Bush after nine days of 9/11 incident declared that the nation should not be isolated for unfair treatment or unkind words basing on their racial or religious background. However, the state and local police data reveal that the hostility exerted were inexpressibly vocally. (Abowd, A5) The prejudice of U.S. government and private citizens against them are very extensive. (Harrington, 16) Many of the Arabs countrywide were complaining that they were spit on, threatened and even subject to armed assault. The police data, news reports and interviews with the community members revealed that some were even succumbed to death. (Abowd, A5) Some critics explicitly termed the profiling of Arabs and other Muslims as a technique to combat terrorism. (U.S. Racial Profiling Both Wrong and Counter-Productive, Says Amnesty) Following the incident of September 11, the very concept of racial discrimination those were viewed by most of conscious Americans to be the unacceptable and contradictory ideal of the national constitution are being regarded by most as the legal and the most efficient means of low enforcement in some circumstances. (Wrong Now: Racial Profiling Before & After September 11, 2001)

The persons detected by the Department of Homeland Security as the prospective terrorists are prone to state watching, detention, deportation, special reporting requirements and 'voluntary interviews'. The FBI has taken voluntary interview in 5000 cases throughout the Arab and Muslim communities. (Harrington, 17) The National Security Entry-Exit Registration System-NAEERS were declared by the Justice Department on August 12 to be implemented with effective from September 11, 2002. The system required collection of fingerprints in respect of high-risk foreign visitors. Additionally, the program required the selected foreign nationals to register their residence with authorities and to inform about their exit. In a declaration of Justice Department, the foreigners are to be chosen on the basis of conditions laid down by intelligence wing representing the types of activities of various terrorist organizations. Moreover, the system was to label for fingerprinting any non-immigrant aliens whom the State Department detect to be present an elevated national security risk, based on criteria reflecting current intelligence as well as aliens identified by INS inspectors at the port of entry, using similar criteria. (Hassan, 65)

The final plan of the process is to establish a mounting database of foreign visitors that can conveniently be applied to monitor and locate the terrorist suspects. Instead of relying only on the criteria prescribed by intelligence agencies, NASEERS was to generate intelligence to facilitate the detention and deportation of certain visitors and immigrants. The National Security Entry-Exit Registration System thus constitute the most recent element of the police activity prescribed by the Justice Department and the Immigration and naturalization Services -INS targeted against the Middle Easterners, that began with a campaign of secret detentions of immigrants, mostly Arabs and South Asians. The Justice Department with its own estimates reported to have detained 1,182 persons by the end of November 5, 2001 with persistent detentions after the period. (Hassan, 66)

The INS declaration made in mid-June 2001 revealed that 751 persons were detained on immigration charges, and had been deported. Additionally about 74 remained in custody or alleged of immigration violations. About 129 federally charged detainees were there out of which 73 were still in custody during the mid June 2001. The captives released subsequently were alleging about solitary incarceration, regulatory ankle and wrist manacles and were refrained from any sort of physical activity. The INS nabbed and deported many infiltrates since they would not substantiate for non-submission of the change of address forms within the stipulated time period. (Hassan, 66)

The extremes of the performance of the federal government in the periods immediately after September 11, is being transparent presently. During April 2003, the Office of the Inspector General released a report enumerating the treatment of non-citizens held on immigration charges in post September 11 periods that incorporated the failure to notify the captives under immigration charges in a timely manner, entailing them to find it harder in obtaining bonds and meeting with attorneys, their captivity in distressful conditions like leaving light in their cells for twenty-four hours, and making them vulnerable to the physical and oral abuse. Other critics have also ventilated their allegations against the dealings of the federal government in respect Arabs and Muslims after September 11. (Johnson, 78)

Ever since the 9/11 incident, the Arab and Islam organizations with their bases at U.S. engaged in extension of humanitarian assistance to the people of war-torn nations including Palestine, Afghanistan, and Iraq are charged with favoring terrorism and bluntly denounced and declared illegal by the Justice Department. (Harrington, 18) The government in December 2003 declared that it will initiate the National Crime Information Centre NCIC database incorporating the immigration information and also will concentrate on male Muslim infiltrates. This has embarrassed many since some of the information sought…