Suicide Rates

Australia concluded that social factors are responsible for the mental disorders and rise in suicide cases. It is therefore important to implement policies which can address the social and economic responses; the measure should be implemented 'beyond provision of mental health services'. Presently, the socio-economic conditions are considered to have minor impact on the suicide attempts, and research have attributed such behavior with the mental disorders of such individuals, however the insight review of their past reflect that socio-economic characteristics has compel the victim to risk their life through such practices. Social and economic characteristics include education level, occupational status, and income source and employment status. The decline in the socio-economic status within the society was linked directly with the increase in suicide rates. The trend of suicide was much common and significant among the working-age employed, 'government benefit as the main income source and unemployment were associated with higher rates of mental disorders and suicide attempts'. It has been researched that suicide attempts are more common among females as compare to the males, 'women showed a stronger association of substance use disorder with suicide attempts than men'. It was further observed that, males showed deep associations with 'suicide attempts and anxiety disorders than women' (Durkheim, 1933), although it was observed that 'higher prevalence of substance use disorders in men and anxiety disorders in women'. It was concluded that such behavior was based on social causation, 'the significant socio-economic status relationship with suicide attempts, after taking mental illness into account, suggested an independent relationship between status and suicide attempts'. It was has further concluded that medical diagnosis and treatment are not effective remedial measures towards minimizing the suicide attempts, and such attempts are not to be considered individual phenomena. Material life circumstances and situations are considered to be catalyst which have forced people to opt for such attempts, as it is difficult for the people in particular those which are at the lower end of the social spectrum to overcome the socio-economic woes. It is believed that such programs and initiatives should be launched through which the enhancement of the perceived life prospects can be achieved, it is believed that such scheme will improve employment opportunities and job security, and will lower rates of suicide attempts.

In America, although extensive research has been carried out on suicide, on the basis of which wide range of social and economic considerations are attributed with the rising rates of suicide. It has been observed that socio-economic factors have proportional relation with the higher rates of suicide. The research carried out at community level have linked no direct relation between the rates of suicide and socio-economic conditions, however higher rates of suicide has been demonstrated in places under strong influence of socio-economic factors. It was observed that rates of suicide have inverse variation with the poverty and deprivation factors, and the financial stringency is considered to have direct relation with the suicide rates. Measures including unemployment and illiteracy, professional affiliation are considered to have inverse variation with the suicide rates. It was observed that suicide rates were not based on gender or by study design (David, 2004).

According to research immigration activities are also directly related to the suicide activities, such practices are mainly linked with the economic collapse of the immigrants in their new country. It is believed that cultural disparity, and lowered integration are linked with the rising suicide cases among the immigrants. A reported based on multiple regression analysis indicated that incidence of suicide are directly related with the immigration activities, it affected 'two control variables, the proportion of the population over 65, and female participation in the labor force'. It was observed that a single percent rise in immigration is responsible for 0.13% increase in the suicide attempts. It was believed that 'our control variables are somewhat more important than the rate of long-term immigration' (Durkheim, 1933).

It was earlier believed suicide is a personal act, and is based on personal psychology and purely individual thought processes. Durkheim has linked the adoption of suicide by an individual with the persistent influence of 'nonmaterial social facts and social currents' (Cuff, 1992). Social currents are linked with the social movements which are directly related with the social spirits, including 'enthusiasm, indignation, and pity' (Cuff, 1992), and do not 'the permanence and stability that some parts of collective consciousness or collective representation has encompassed'. The researcher has tried to establish an argument by developing linkage between the sociological factors with the anti-social phenomena. Social currents are the basic indicators of the suicide rates, and also highlights the variation among the nations with reference to suicide attempts, 'these rates show regularities over time, with changes in the rates often occurring at similar times in different societies'. It has been observed within a nation particular historic events has influenced the suicide practices, and suicide rates have fluctuated accordingly, 'the relative intensity of this aptitude is measured by taking the proportion between the total number of voluntary deaths and the population of every age and sex' (Hawton, 2001), which is termed as the rate of mortality through suicide. Suicide rate is therefore regarded as a 'factual order, unified and definite'. The suicide rates are collectively afflicted, and are based on the 'predisposition to contribute a definite quota of voluntary deaths'. Previously other geographic factors including heredity, climate, race, and personal factors including individual psychopathic states, and imitation are associated with the rates of suicide. Durkheim concluded that during summer there is rise in suicide rates irrespective of national affiliation, it was observed that 'the proportion of suicides in the six warmer months to the six colder months is very similar in each country'. It was therefore concluded that heat is responsible for the increase in the 'excitability of the nervous system' (Hawton, 2001), however depression and excitement are other major factors which surge the suicide rates. It was also concluded by the Durkheim that temperature variations have also affected the suicide rates, 'suicides increase in number as temperature increases, suicides reach a peak before the temperature does'. The analyst also observed direct relation between the suicide rates and the length of day,' suicides increasing as the days grow longer, and decreasing in number as the length of day declines' (Durkheim, 1938). Surprisingly during the noon time, when the sun is at the peak the suicide rates were reported minimum, therefore sun is not considered to be the cause behind the rising suicide rates. The analyst realized that neither it was the season, the timings nor the temperature which cause rise in the suicide activities, rather it was the level of social interaction which is extremely high during this period that have cause the rise in the suicide rates. It was observed that during summer time from March to July the social life of an individual is high, and gets intensified, therefore 'the greater ease of development of social life in the summer than in the winter' is responsible for the change in the social behavior of the society, and in worst cases such social transformation has the potential to be deadly, through suicide cases.

Religion is considered to be another factor that in majority of cases has controlled the suicide rates; the religious teachings are associated with the suicide rates. In the Protestant countries the suicide practices are more common as compare to the countries where Catholic doctrine is followed. The analysts have further observed that family structure and setup has also influenced the suicide rates, families that are more integrated and socially adjusted have reported less suicide cases. The degree of integration and the regulation by society have deeply influenced the social response towards suicide practice, 'integration is the degree to which collective sentiments are shared and regulation refers to the degree of external constraint on people' (Durkheim, 1933), and the latter has the potential to increase the suicide figures, the former has reduced the rate. Catholicism is considered to be integrated religion as compare to the Protestantism, and such difference has proven the differences in the suicide rates in both the religion, on the basis of their social integration and network. According to the research during the revolutionary period of 1848, when the European countries under went political and social transformation, the minimum cases of suicides were reported, however when the continent under went series of political turmoil, wars and economic changes a significant rise in the suicide rates was reported, therefore 'each of these great social movements could be considered to be examples of social currents that have widespread impact within and across societies' (Goodman, 1999). It has been discussed that social characteristics have been evolved by the social elements, it is been doubted that egoism is also attributed with the rising suicide rates, which is considered as core motivation behind human action and social setup.

It was researched that nature suicide practices was reflected the proper analysis of the condition and situation responsible for such actions. On the basis of…