Theoretical Perspective on Advertising

Advertising and Functions and Objectives of Advertising


The general division in the social sciences in terms of theoretical schools of thought has its own influences in other allied functions of management and social science profession. Advertising as marketing concept has also been a beneficiary of this division in both positive and negative ways hence the term advertisement has been the subject matter of a lot of definition. These definitions have largely being underpinned by the perceived school of tough as far the of those who profess theme namely classical, scientific, neo-classical and the modernist. Lanus from the classical point-of-view defines the term a s any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor. In the view of Villan who is a scientific management theorist the term advertisement has its roots in a latin word which means to urn attention of people to as specific thing base on that he concluded that it is a paid publicity which he explains to mean making general or public knowledge of good and a services with the aim of increasing sales.

He further asserts that the term is a mass communication tool which is essential in paid form by a firm or an individual and the ultimate purpose of which is to give information, develop attitudes and induce action which are useful to the advertiser. It is also important to bring into perspectives that thoughts of the neoclassical theorist represented by Martinez who is of the view that advertising is the process of persuading potential customers to buy products or promote its services through the adoption of a number of strategies and media such as newspapers, magazines, television commercial, radio, internet, direct mail campaigns and other forms with the assistance of specially focused advertising firms. They distinguish the term from marketing by affirming that marketing is a process that encompasses a discovery of customers need and finding optimal ways of to meet that need. By this they subsumed the term advertising into the general marketing process. While Bovee (1992) Explains advertising to be an non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media. There are two basic ways to sell anything: personally and non-personally. Personal selling requires the seller and the buyer to get together. There are advantages and disadvantages to this. The first advantage is time: the seller has time to discuss in detail everything about the product. The buyer has time to ask questions, get answers, and examine evidence for or against purchase. A second advantage of personal selling is that the seller can see the person he or she is selling to and how the sales message is getting across. If the target customer yawn or your eyes shift away, you're obviously bored, and the seller can change approach. The seller can also see if the target customer is hooked, see what features or benefits has the customers' attention, and emphasize them to close the sale. Finally, the seller can easily locate potential buyers. If you enter a store, you probably have an interest in something that store sells. Street vendors and door-to-door sellers can simply shout at possibilities, like the Hyde Park (London) vendors who call out, "I say there, Guv'nor, can you use a set of these dishes?," or knock at the door and start their spiel with an attention grabber. From there on they fit their message to the individual customer, taking all the time a customer is willing to give them. It is the argument of Taflinger (1996) that advertising has none of the advantages of personal selling i.e. there is very little time in which to present the sales message, there is no way to know just who the customer is or how he/she is responding to the message, the message cannot be changed in mid-course to suit the customer's reactions. Moreover, advertising has comparatively speaking, all the time in the world. Unlike personal selling, the sales message and its presentation does not have to be created on the spot with the customer watching. It can be created in as many ways as the writer can conceive, be rewritten, tested, modified, injected with every trick and appeal known to affect consumers. Again, although advertisers may not see the individual customer nor be able to modify the sales message according to that individual's reactions at the time, it does have research about customers. The research can identify potential customers, find what message elements might influence them, and figure out how best to get that message to them. Although the research is meaningless when applied to any particular individual, it is effective when applied to large groups of customers. Third, and perhaps of most importance, advertising can be far cheaper per potential customer than personal selling. Personal selling is extremely labor-intensive, dealing with one customer at a time. Advertising deals with hundreds, thousands, or millions of customers at a time, reducing the cost per customer to mere pennies. In fact, advertising costs are determined in part using a formula to determine, not cost per potential customer, but cost per thousand potential customers. Thus, it appears that advertising is a good idea as a sales tool. For small ticket items, such as chewing gum and guitar picks, advertising is cost effective to do the entire selling job. For large ticket items, such as cars and computers, advertising can do a large part of the selling job, and personal selling is used to complete and close the sale. From the discussion set forth above it leaves no doubt that the general objectives of advertising is to ensure that there is sales of a product or a service or an idea. The real objective of advertising is effective communication between goods and clients and increasing awareness. It is the argument of nnnnnnnn that in the absence of this ultimate objective, all other sub-objectives so perfectly achieved are of no efficacy as their success is only seen in the actualization of the ultimate objects. Some of these specific objectives include making immediate sales, building primary demand, introduction of a price deal, building brand recognition and brand insistence, helping salesmen by building an awareness of a product among retailers, to create a reputation for service, reliability or research strength and to increase market share.


1.2.1 To make an immediate sale

As already indicated the objective of the entire marketing proceeds is to provide goods and services that are attractive or meet the needs of consumers. When the organisation adopts a strategic marketing communication strategy, it is its end point to ensure that the goods, services and ideas so produced attract enough attention and conviction to elicit a level of sales which is commensurable with the efforts of the organisation and enough to cover its cost and targeted operational profit. As the core objectives of an organisation, it provides the motivation for all other activities as these are all aimed at accentuating the processes.

1.1.2 To build primary demand.

It is also the objective of a business to build a demand or reasonable customer base for its products especially at the introductory and the declining phases of the product life cycle. This is because it is demand that eventually leads to sale. Experts consider advertising as an important promotional tool in stimulating and turning the attention of the general public with appropriate forms of advertisement

1.2.3 To introduce a price deal.

It is also the objective of advertisement to communicate prices deals to the general public. As organisation contends with competition, a number of strategies are adopted to survive. Sometime the organisation may engage in flexible pricing strategies and along with other promotional tools to maintain or expand the market share.

1.2.4 To build brand recognition or brand insistence.

According to nnnnnnnnnn, branding refers to creating a unique name and image for a product either goods or services in the mind of the consumer, through advertising campaigns with a consistent theme. He further argues that branding aim to establish a significant and differentiated presence in the market that attracts and retains loyal customers. This definition provides an adequate explanation to what advertisement can do in terms of brand building and brand insistence.

1.2.5 To help salesman by building an awareness of a product among retailers.

The promotional mix of a marketing communication strategy involves a number of other techniques. Sales men are direct sakes agents recruited to personally meet consumers and present the products of the organisation to theme while enforcing its advantages over competitor products. The limitation of the extent to which the sales man can move persuade and educate is facilitated by advertisement as this makes their work easier.

1.2.6 To create a reputation for service, reliability or research strength.

Other researchers have also argued that organizations can embark son advertisement in order to put forward its superiority or possession of a…